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International logistics transport
International logistics transport
Release time: 2019-11-12 Page Views: 75

International shipping

 International carriage of goods by sea refers to the carrier in accordance with the contract of carriage of goods by sea, with maritime vessels as the means of transport, in order to collect freight as a reward, the shipper's consignment of goods by sea from one country's port to another country's port behavior。

International shipping (International Ocean FreightIt is the most important mode of transport in international trade, more than two-thirds of the total volume of international trade, and the vast majority of China's import and export goods are transported by sea transport。

Chinese name international shipping Foreign nameInternational Ocean Freight The advantages of Marine transportation are large volume, low shipping cost, slow speed and high navigation risk


The large volume of ocean transportation, the low cost of sea transportation, and the navigation channel are accessible, which are its advantages。However, the speed is slow, the navigation risk is large, and the sailing date is not easy to determine。


According to the mode of operation of ships, international shipping can be divided into liner transport and charter transport。

Liner transport

a.The characteristics of liner transportation:lLiner transport has fixed shipping dates, routes, ports of call and relatively fixed freight rates;(2The freight of the liner includes the handling charge, so the port loading and unloading of the liner is the responsibility of the ship;(3The number of goods carried by the liner is more flexible, and the cargo owner books the space according to demand, which is especially suitable for the transportation of general groceries and container goods。

b.Liner freight。

Liner freight is specified by liner tariff, including basic freight and various surcharges。Basic freight is divided into two categories: one is the traditional cargo freight;one The class is containerization rate。

Groceries are also charged according to the price of the goods or the number of pieces。For large quantities of low-value goods, the freight rate may be agreed upon between the ship and the cargo。

There are a variety of surcharges in liner freight charges, including;Overlength surcharge, overweight surcharge, choice of discharge port surcharge, change of discharge port surcharge, fuel surcharge, port congestion surcharge, circumnavigation surcharge, transshipment surcharge and direct surcharge, etc。

Container transportation costs, in addition to the above sea transportation costs, also need to include the relevant service fees and equipment use fees。

In addition, the liner company for different goods mixed in the same package, according to which the higher charge calculated freight。The same ticket of goods, such as packaging is different, its billing level and standards are different, such as the shipper does not specify the gross weight and volume according to different packaging, then the full ticket of goods according to the higher charge of freight, the same bill of lading has more than two different names, such as the shipper does not specify the gross weight and volume, also from the high billing。


Chartering means chartering the whole ship。The cost of chartering is lower than that of liner, and direct routes can be selected, so bulk cargo is generally transported by chartering。There are two main ways of chartering: schedule chartering and time chartering。


Schedule a charter。Voyage chartering is a voyage based way of chartering, also known as voyage chartering。The ship must complete the cargo transportation tasks according to the voyage specified in the charter party, and be responsible for the operation and management of the ship and the expenses incurred during the voyage。The freight for the voyage charter is generally calculated according to the quantity of the goods shipped, but also according to the amount of the voyage charter。The rights and obligations of both parties shall be stipulated in the charter Party: In the case of a charter party, the contract shall specify whether the ship shall bear the charges for loading and unloading the goods in port。If the ship does not bear the loading and unloading, the time limit or rate of loading and unloading shall be specified in the contract, together with the corresponding demurrage and dispatch。If the lessee fails to complete the loading and unloading operations within the time limit。In order to compensate the ship for the loss caused by the delay in sailing, a certain penalty, that is, demurrage, shall be paid to the ship。If the charterer completes the loading and unloading operations ahead of schedule, the ship will pay the charterer a certain bonus, called dispatch。As a rule, despatch is half of demurrage。


Time charter。Time chartering is a way of chartering a ship for a certain period of time, also known as time chartering, in which the ship shall provide the seaworthy ship within the charter period stipulated in the contract and bear the relevant expenses for maintaining the seaworthy ship。During this period, the charterer can still operate and control the ship within the prescribed navigation area by himself, but he shall be responsible for all expenses in the operation process such as fuel charges, port charges and handling charges。

Large cargo delivery

There are many kinds of goods transported in international shipping, and the types of ships and handling equipment used to transport goods are different for different types of goods。According to the specific cargo, Seven Seas introduces how to transport oversized cargo from two aspects: ship type and loading and unloading equipment。

1. 卡车。Trucks are used for transportationPCTCPURE CAR TRUCK CARRIER), its main feature is the use of single deck (general height in34The cabin can accommodate large trucks with a maximum loading capacity of ship tailhop45Tons, per square meter load up to3Tons, which can therefore allow overweight trucks to jump into the cabin through the ship's tail。

2. 大型设备。In general, the transportation of large equipment is more complex, some parts are larger, the tonnage is larger, can not be used for general container transportation, and some spare parts can be used for container transportation。This kind of equipment is generally usedRORO AND CONTAINER This type of ship can be loaded with large components and containers at the same time, so it is the ideal type of ship chosen for the transportation of many large equipment。

So which loading and unloading equipment is more reasonable for this type of ship?

BOLSTER FLATBED This device is suitable for long4Within meters, heavy28Large parts within tons。The goods are hoisted onto the slab by the crane,Lifting height does not exceed one meter,(Can avoid goods in the lifting process due to swing, overturn caused by damage to the goods),Then special nylon straps (which are as rigid as steel wire ropes) are used,However, compared with the steel wire rope, it can greatly reduce the wear on the surface of the goods) or the steel wire rope with gaskets,Fasten the goods to the slab,The cargo is carried into the cabin by forklift through the stern jump of the ship。

ROLLTRAILER This equipment is suitable for transporting overweight and oversized goods, which can theoretically be carried25Meters long and heavy120Tons of cargo, but due to the limitations of the tail hop carrying capacity and the transport capacity of the tractor, the actual carrying capacity will be smaller。ROLLTRAILERZero damage of goods can be realized by jumping the self-generation tow head into the hold through the stern of the ship。

3. 火车车厢。As the train is longer, yes40Meters long so use the generalROLLTRAILERDue to the limitations of the hatch, the body cannot be rotated into the cabin。SPECIALDESIGNED TRAILERS(Special tire bogies) can solve this problem, the equipment tire can be achieved360The degree of rotation can be turned around and carried into the cabin when jumping into the cabin through the tail of the ship。

Dangerous goods regulations

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG CODEThe International Maritime Organization (IMO)IMOTo protect seafarers and reduce Marine pollution by ensuring the safety of the carriage of dangerous goods by maritime vessel。Member States can also learn from the relevant domestic regulationsIMDGRelevant chapters, and can be changed in accordance with the specific circumstances of the country。

Regulations require that all conventions for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS)SOLASAnd the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) member states, must be enforcedIMDG法规。The regulations are not limited to the use of sailors, all shipping related industry and shipping services personnel may use parts of the regulations。The regulations consist of: technical terminology, packaging, labelling, revealing plates, marking, stowing, isolation, handling and emergency response。The International Maritime Organization every two yearsIMDG CODEMake a revision。

With the continuous improvement of people's modern life level and scientific and technological progress, the social demand for dangerous goods has significantly increased, and also directly led to the dangerous goods enterprises must develop more types of dangerous goods to meet these needs。Based on this,It is clearly stipulated in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code,All personnel engaged in the onshore operation of dangerous goods must attend training in accordance with the relevant requirements of the regulations,Such as: dangerous goods manufacturers, packers, warehousing, shipowners, freight forwarders, carriers, shipping company management personnel, ship inspection personnel, dangerous goods packaging manufacturing and inspection units, dangerous goods ground operators and port operations and management personnel。The main training content of regulations generally includes: the correct classification of dangerous goods, the use of dangerous goods list, packaging regulations, packaging performance testing, substance identification, identification and labeling, Posting of hazard notices, preparation of documents, loading and isolation standards。Practitioners must hold a certificate to work and receive retraining according to the updating intervals of regulations。

Latest editionIMDG CODE34-08),已于20101The regulations require that all shore-based operators involved in dangerous goods must pass appropriate training before they can take up their posts。

Friendly links: General Administration of Customs State Treasury National Development and Reform Commission Xi 'an started foot International Trade Co., LTD Certification and Accreditation Administration of China Customs code query Bureau of Quota and License Affairs, Ministry of Commerce International freight forwarding

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